Transmission and Prevention

How can you get HIV?

HIV lives in the following bodily fluids of an infected person:

  • blood
  • semen and pre-seminal fluid (“pre-cum”)
  • rectal fluids/anal mucous
  • vaginal fluids
  • breast milk.

To get infected, these bodily fluids need get into your blood through a mucous membrane (e.g. the lining of the vagina, rectum, the opening of the penis, or the mouth) breaks in the skin (e.g. cuts), or be injected directly into your bloodstream.

A person living with HIV can pass the virus to others whether they have symptoms or not. People with HIV are most infectious in the first few weeks after infection.

Here we describe the main ways you can get HIV.


Unprotected sex

Having unprotected sex (sex without a condom) with someone who has HIV, particularly unprotected vaginal sex and anal sex.


Injecting drugs

Sharing needles, syringes or other equipment used to prepare and inject drugs with someone who has HIV.


From mother-to-baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding

A mother infected with HIV can pass the virus to her baby via her blood during pregnancy and birth, and through her breast milk when breastfeeding.


Working in healthcare

Also known as ‘occupational exposure’, healthcare workers are at risk of HIV from cuts made by a needle or sharp object (needlestick injury) with infected blood on it.


Blood transfusions and organ/tissue transplants

Receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV. This risk is extremely small because most countries test blood products for HIV first.

If you think you have put yourself at risk of HIV, the only way to find out if you have HIV is to have an HIV test.


How can’t you get HIV?

Some people wrongly believe that HIV can be spread by the air (even though HIV can’t survive outside the body) and other ways such as by touching toilet seats or from mosquito bites.

See our page on HIV myths for more information.


How do I protect myself from HIV?

There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:

  • using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex.
  • avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment with anyone if you take drugs.
  • taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this can dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
  • taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection (e.g. gloves, goggles), washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment (like needles).
  • asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving (blood transfusion, organ or tissue transplant) has been tested for HIV.